SALT

SALT

The Proof of World Catastrophe

Who would have thought that the usual table salt that we use in the kitchen every day can provide answers to complex questions. It turns out that the world consumption of salt is directly related to the change in atmospheric pressure. How can this help us understand the events of the past?

What you will learn by reading this article can be expressed in words: the amazing is near. Amazing, because the imagination opens the kind of “breath” of the living world, organized with the ad of changing the dimensionality of space. Science calls it “osmosis”. The amazing is near, because every housewife is engaged in this magic of changing the dimensionality of space in the volume of the soup pot. Although, still, the main topic of this article, is the obvious link between salt consumption and the change in the atmospheric pressure over the past few centuries.

It turns out, that the consumption of salt is not a whim of gourmets. It is vital to life. Our daily requirement is just under 2 grams a day. If consumption is stopped, inevitable consequences occur in the form of a decline in strength, nervous diseases, digestive problems, bone fragility, lack of appetite, and, finally, death. This is because the lack of salt the body makes up for by extracting it from other organs and tissues, the destruction of bones and muscles.

Why is Nature so cruel to us? Where did our Ancestors receive their salt, if it only became widely available recently?

Several centuries ago, salt was very expensive, as it is rarely found in Nature in a useable form. It must be mined. Only by developing the technology of salt extraction, which took several centuries, we artificially satisfied this need. But why was man deprived of this necessary-for-life resource, when the development of ecological system focuses on the resources in abundance? Any significant infringement leads to a delay in the development.

And it would be fine, if this was only about humans. Virtually all herbivores and birds experience the same salt deficiency. Even the special feed salt is produced for livestock. Salt is given to horses, rabbits, guinea pigs and parrots. In the wild, wild boars and moose will never pass by bait in the form of a piece of “lick-salt”. Unhappy animals, just like us, suffer from the lack of salt, but unlike humans, they do not have a salt-mining industry. They lick stones, dig the soil in the search of salt, and are happy with any handouts.

Everything says that the present state of Nature is unnatural. Something has clearly changed in the calm flow of development. Most likely, the very need for salt arose not so long ago, as a result of some worldwide change. Otherwise, humans and the animal kingdom would have time to fully adapt to these changes.

It is not superfluous to find out how the scientific world looks at all this. It does not see any problem and just attempts to describe the patterns. For example, scientists say that the salinity of animal blood corresponds to the salinity of the water of the world’s oceans:

“This circumstance was noted in the last century by Bunge (1898), who first suggested that life originated in the ocean and modern animals inherited from the oceanic ancestors an inorganic composition of blood, so similar to sea water. The theory of the oceanic origin of the mineral composition of the internal environment was developed by McKallum (1910, 1926), who, in support of it, brought forth numerous analyzes of the blood of various animals. This theory has received new reinforcements for over 50 years, until it has acquired the degree of probability, which is possible for biological constructs, covering the distant ages of life.” (Physiological mechanisms of water-salt balance, Ginetsinsky A.G.)

According to scientists, the salinity of blood only mimics the ancient conditions of existence of the simplest organisms. That is, the ocean liquid gradually closed in the inner cycles of the organism and was genetically preserved in this form. The heirs of those ancient organisms are all modern animals.

The optimum salinity of blood is approximately equal to 1% (more precisely, 0.89%). The salinity of the world ocean is now 3 times higher. The scientific world is not at all embarrassed by this, they would not throw out such a beautiful theory because of a trifle, especially since there are no other conjectures. So the scientists agreed to believe that once in the distant past the ocean had exactly 1% salinity. And then, for some reason (no matter the reason) the level of salinity increased. Once again, the scientific world fitted the reality to its own speculation.

But throughout the 20th century, instead of “new reinforcements”, the theory of the oceanic origin of the internal environment was accumulating new contradictions. The solution of these contradictions, in order to protect the dominant theory, was mainly practiced by theorists from the field of biology.

The theory of blood is understood. However, the blood is an intercellular fluid, but what about the internal fluid of the cell? It turns out that the mineral composition (salinity) inside the cell always differs from the external environment. There is a drastic difference in the sodium ions (+ Na) and potassium ions (+ K), there are many of the sodium ions and few potassium ions in the blood, but the complete opposite picture is observed inside the cell. And now biologists, in theory, should continue their thought further.

According to the theory, at the time of the appearance of complex multicellular organisms, the ocean water was close in composition to the blood, 1% salinity, including a lot of sodium and and little potassium, (+ Na) > (+ K). Then, even earlier, at the time of the birth of unicellular cells, when the three-layered protein-fat cells of the cells were closed, the ion composition of the world’s ocean was reversed: little sodium and a lot of potassium (+ Na) < (+ K). This is something you will never hear about, because while it is still possible to dream about a 3 time increase in the salinity of the ocean, attempting to convince people of such leapfrogging of the chemical composition of the water of the entire world is difficult. And there is absolutely no evidence to any of this. Only speculations.

Thus, today, the scientific world calms itself and all mankind with an untenable theory of the oceanic origin of the internal environment, throwing out any evidence that does not fit this theory, and does not see the problem at close range. Claiming “everything is correct” and “life goes on as usual”.

The theory is weak, based on a small particular case of similarity. Although it is even difficult to call it a similarity, when the indicators are over 3 times different. This theory is completely separated from the general view of the development of the world’s ecological systems. Judge for yourself.

Freshwater and land organisms are in a constant state of lack of salt, and marine organisms are in a state of catastrophic excess. This is a big problem, and it is solved by each species independently, as it turned out. Within the framework of this article, it is impossible to describe the whole variety of attempts at survival in these extreme conditions.

Often, the methods of adaptation are so original, that most marvel at them. And it is curious that organisms use already existing systems, loading them with additional work in order to maintain salt balance. For example, a person has kidneys. Special systems have simply not appeared.

The simplest single-celled organisms do not have complex excretory systems at all, buy they also want to live. So they solved the issue simply and inconveniently. Freshwater unicellular organisms continuously often “breathe”, casting out the excess water, which is inflated in them involuntarily and constantly through the process of osmotic pressure, which will be described below. If they stop forcibly throwing out the liquid, they will immediately be ruptured by internal pressure.

And the marine simplest organisms, on the contrary, almost do not force out the liquid, because the excessive salinity of the ocean tends to pump out water from them, which would “flatten” them. It seems good, there is no strain, but this prevents getting rid of the waste. Excess of waste can lead to death. Such existence cannot be called normal, for such adaptation takes a lot of energy.

There are worms that are forced to exist in waters with variable salinity. These are the mouths of rivers flowing into the seas. They, in general, have gave up in the helplessness to struggle with the destructive changes of salinity and survive only due to elasticity of their tissues. When fresh water comes in, they swell, and when the sea returns, they wrinkle. That’s how they live.

Completely, without loss, no one has adapted. The process is in full swing. And today, scientists record extinction of some species regularly. Nature continues to lose variety. Scientists are trying to explain this with bad ecology, but the same was happening in the 18th and 19th centuries, when humanity had practically no influence on climate and pollution. So, as they say in the military, there is a general world contingency.

Of course, modern scientific theory cannot explain how the ecological system of the world could develop and prosper for millions of years, having such problems with osmotic compatibility of the habitat and living organisms.

It is believed that the more problems arise, the faster the ecological system develops. We are considering just such an idiotic case. But in all reality it would sound very similar to this: “The more sticks you stick in the wheel, the faster the bicycle will ride.” Stupidity, of course, but adults with scientific degrees seriously talk about this as a stimulus for the development. Everything is turned upside down.

If, from the standpoint of the late 19th century, the theory of the oceanic origin of the internal environment could be considered progressive, today, it is already an unacceptably low analytical level, an incomprehensibility and unwillingness to go beyond the framework of traditional ideas.

But, as you know, anyone can criticize. And what can we offer ourselves? The fact of the matter is that we can and do offer. To begin with, we will deal with osmotic pressure and its role in the survival of organisms.

The most important thing for which we need salt is the maintenance of osmotic pressure. This is a very simple and interesting thing. Imagine a tank divided by a membrane with small holes. Such membrane allow water molecules to pass through, but sodium and chlorine ions (dissolved salt) are not allowed to pass. It is these properties that the cell membranes have. If one part of the tank is filled with salt water, and the other with fresh water, then after a while the water level in the compartment with salt water will rise spontaneously, and in the one with fresh water will drop by the same amount. As if the water from the fresh water compartment was pumped into a salt water compartment.

This is because the water tends to dilute the saturated saline solution and level the concentration in both compartments. Only water passes through the membrane, salt ions cannot get into the fresh water compartment, and the process goes only one way. So there is an osmotic pressure, a kind of salt pump.

There is no intelligible scientific explanation as to why this happens. Through saturation with ions of salt, the dimensionality of the intercellular fluid varies. Each ion bends space around itself. Their total action creates such a skew. This creates osmotic pressure.

We, as humans, are constantly changing the dimensionality. We sprinkle roads with salt: we change the dimensionality of space in the volume of road surface and, as the result, the temperature of crystallization of water decreases. There is winter snow all around, but spring on the surface of the road. An ordinary miracle.

Or, for example, we take fresh cucumbers, place them in a glass jar and pour brine with a salt concentration of more than 30%. In this case, the dimensionality of the brine is so great that bacteria that enter the space cannot resist osmotic pressure. They wrinkle and die. And since apart from them there is no one to spoil our cucumbers, the delicacy will be preserved for a long time.

Simplified in the body, the salt pump works like this: if the intercellular fluid gets rid of excess salt ions, and becomes more fresh, a certain portion of the liquid is pumped into the cell to freshen it and to equalize the dimensional difference. As the result, the internal pressure of the cell somewhat naturally increases. It seems to be inflated. And this happens until all of the acting forces are balanced. If the intercellular fluid is saturated with salt ions (becomes more saline), the pump turns on in the opposite direction, part of the liquid is evacuated from the cell. The internal pressure of the cell falls, and it begins to “deflate”.

It is important to understand that fluctuations in the pressure inside the cell are only permissible in small ranges.

Now let us see what happens if the change of atmospheric pressure occurs with a constant composition of the intercellular solution. Put the same red blood cells in the solution corresponding to the usual salinity of blood of 0.89%. Of course, nothing happens to them. But if we place it all in a pressure chamber and significantly lower the atmospheric pressure, then the cells swell and burst.

After all, their internal pressure will be much higher than the external one. Another mechanism of equalizing the pressure, except for the salt pump, was not given to the cells by Nature. Avoiding cell death in conditions of low atmospheric pressure is quite easy. You just need to salt the solution. The salt pump will work and pump some of the fluid out of the cells. The cells will not burst, and they will live happily ever after, only if you are able to add salt to the intercellular fluid.

This experiment shows that if scientists did not consider the atmospheric pressure as a constant, they would immediately notice that the salinity of blood directly depends on it. It is now believed that the constant salinity of blood is a mandatory phenomenon for all organisms. So it is, but only while the atmospheric pressure has not drastically changed.

It is interesting that within the water-salt balance this possibility is not considered by biologists, although we are talking about hundreds of millions of years of development. And if scientists admit that such an inert environment as the water of the world ocean changed its salinity several times during this period of time, then it is logical to assume that atmospheric pressure has changed much more.

I must admit that all the osmotic processes described above are much more complicated. For I’m sure any expert in biology can say: “He simply touched the surface, but did not discuss the subject on a deeper level.” Indeed, cell membranes also pass a certain number of ions, and active chemical “pumps” that forcibly transfer metal ions through the cell membrane operate. Yes, and water that penetrates through the membrane is experiencing resistance due to fatty interlayer between protein cell membranes. Be sure to take into account that the internal pressure of the cell is always greater than the external pressure, to maintain elasticity. In animals, this is about 1 atmosphere. But in fact, all this does not affect the water-salt balance enough, and the experience with red blood cells is an example of this. All these factors only contribute to the state of equilibrium.

Another example can be seen, when diving to a depth of more than 100 meters. Divers tend to experience a water pressure of more than 10 atmospheres. And, on the contrary, one of NASA’s reports described an experiment with reduced pressure, carried out with monkeys (conditional human). The animal was placed in a pressure chamber and the pressure was reduced to a vacuum. It turned out that our organisms have certain strength, which allows them to perform meaningful actions for another 15-20 seconds. After that, there is a loss of consciousness, and in 40-50 seconds, because of caisson illness, the brain is destroyed.

However, our safety margins do not save us, when the exposure to low pressure is prolonged. The metabolic processes begin to be disrupted. The pressure of the intercellular fluid, usually close to atmospheric, becomes lower than normal, while still high within the cells themselves. The body begins to regulate the osmotic pressure (by adding salinity to the blood) and counteracting the skew.

Now, in order for cells not to experience the destructive internal pressure, it is required to increase the salinity of the intercellular fluid. And it is necessary to constantly maintain this new level of salinity. More salt is needed than was previously included in our diet. Our body follows this closely, monitoring the signals of internal sensors. The brain signals: “I want salt”. And if you do not listen, salt will be pulled from all the tissues, where possible. Your life will be short and unhappy.

It is very interesting that only 60% of osmotic pressure is produced by salt ions, the remaining participants in this process are glucose, proteins, etc. Something that is “sweet and tasty”. The solution of our taste basis. Humans love sweets also because these substances supplement the counterweight mechanism to the lowered atmospheric pressure, help the saline pump to work. We need sweet, as well as salt. And again, all animals that suffer from lack of salt are also very fond of sweet. Fortunately, sweet in Nature is more common. Fruits, berries, roots and of course honey. Also, sugars are released during the digestion of starch, which is contained in cereals.

The animal organisms, and humans, in our world are adapted to life under conditions of greater atmospheric pressure than we have today (760 mm Hg). It is difficult to calculate as to how much greater the atmospheric pressure used to be, but it is estimated that is is no less than 1.5 times. However, if we take as a basis the fact that the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma averages 768.2 kPa (7.6 atmospheres). It is quite probably that initially our atmosphere was 8 times denser. No matter how wild it may sound, it is possible. It is known that the pressure in the air bubbles, which are contained in amber, according to data, carries from 8 to 10 atmospheres. This just reflects the state of the atmosphere at the time of hardening of the resin, from which the amber formed. It is difficult to believe in such coincidences.

It is approximately understandable, as to when exactly the fall of atmospheric density occurred. This can be traced back to the backward industrial achievements of mankind for the extraction of salt. The last 100 years there has been a centralized industrial development of several large deposits. We were helped by the use of heavy quarry equipment. Approximately 300-400 years ago, the increase in salt production gave the implementation of the technology of evaporation of sea water, or brine from underground wells. And all that was earlier, for example, manual collection in open deposits or burning of plants, can be called a low-effective start of the production of salt extraction technology. Over the past 500-600 years, this technology has developed much faster than the already established forge, pottery and others, which speaks of its recent demand.

Within these timeframes, the salt riots of the early 17th century fit well, when salt has become equivalent to survival. Before this century, this has not been observed. Over time, with the development of technology, demand was met, the severity of the salt issue was reduced, and we no longer see such massive unrest on the subject of salt. That is, in my opinion, a significant drop in the density of the atmosphere most likely occurred in the 15th-17th centuries.

Alexey Artemyev

Izhevsk, Russia

Translated by: Dmitiry Kushnir

Writing is hard work and takes a lot of energy, so if you found this article useful, buy me a coffee or an energy bar.

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